The keyboard toccatas of Johann Sebastian Bach, one of the most important composers of the Baroque period, incorporate some of the most extraordinary compositional techniques due to their improvisatory and virtuosic style. Therefore, in order to interpret BWV 911 toccata in D minor, like the others, it is necessary to understand the aesthetic approach of the period and the narrative expression of the music, and to approach the piece from various perspectives. A comprehensive analysis considering the historical, theoretical, and stylistic aspects of the composition is important when it comes to interpretive approaches on the modern piano. In this way, the data obtained in this research will lead us to a more complete understanding of the piece and, consequently, to a more informed and compelling interpretation. The study begins by providing a historical context on Baroque music and the toccata style. Then it presents a structural analysis of the formal, harmonic, motivic, and articulative aspects, along with a comparative examination of interpretations by Martha Argerich and Vladimir Horowitz, two of the most prominent pianists of our time. The aim is to explore various points regarding the expressive nature of the composition, its historical performance practices, and the interpretive approaches for the modern piano.
Keywords: Baroque period, Toccata, Johann Sebastian Bach, Analysis