Culture is defined as all the material and spiritual values of a society from the past to the present and the transfer of these values from generation to generation, and it has changed and developed since human beings started to exist. This development and transformation describe a process of change arising from the geographical and social interactions that societies have experienced in their past. The process of modernization that had started in the Ottoman Empire gained momentum with the proclamation of the Republic. In this process, interventions were made in many social areas under the name of modernization. In Anatolia, which has a musical tradition from the Ottoman Empire to the Republican period, the biggest intervention for the modernization efforts that started with the Republic was in the field of music. Turkish society would find its own identity with a new type of music under the name of 'National Music' by collecting the melodies created by and existing in their own villages and their own people, not the music left over from the Ottoman Empire. As a result, compilation trips were organized to many parts of Turkey. At the same time, with the reforms made in the field of education, new educational institutions were opened and students were trained. With the return of the students sent abroad for education, the methods of Western Music were learned, and it was ensured that the National Music created in Turkey was made polyphonic by subjecting it to new arrangements with these methods.
Keywords: Musicology, music history, music policies, republican period