İdil Sanat ve Dil Dergisi
Cilt 11, Sayı 94  2022/6  (ISSN: 2146-9903, E-ISSN: 2147-3056)

NO Makale Adı

In the Age of Enlightenment, which had extraordinary effects in the fields of science and philosophy in 17th and 18th century Europe; It aimed to liberate the developing rational thought from the old, traditional or unchangeable ideologies. While secular and rational thought began to be accepted with the Enlightenment, innovations such as fundamental rights and freedoms, separation of powers, democratic participation of the people in the state administration and direct democracy became the basic meaning of life. In this period, when the foundations of modern democracy in the 20th and 21st centuries were laid, many thinkers and scientists left their mark on the period with their innovations. With this progress in thought, the Middle Ages, which is described as the "Dark Ages", came to an end. Contrary to purely spiritual belief without witnessing the process, experiment and observation emerged as the most important element in the practice of science in this period and became the source of important developments in natural sciences. These advances in reason and science led to the development of the concept of freedom in the individual, and with the 1789 French Revolution, the concepts of independence, individualism, equality and national feelings created the necessary ground for "romanticism" to become a new trend. The understanding of art, which was strengthened by national feelings and appealed to the public, became the basic art principle of the period. Feelings have gained importance instead of logic, intellect and common sense have been replaced by unbridled and unmeasured elements of emotion, imagination and enthusiasm. The emphasis on individualism and freedom was also reflected in the music, instead of the works composed on the orders of the nobility in the previous periods and written in accordance with their amateur playing level, works whose form is extremely complex but can be performed by virtuosos who are masters of their instruments have begun to be created. In this period when the era of virtuosos began, a name dictated its name to the era in golden letters; Niccolò Paganini... In this article, the romantic period and its intellectual structure and the innovations that Paganini brought to the romantic music understanding and their effects on this period will be examined in detail.

Keywords: Romanticism, Technical Individualism, Paganini, Music