As an interdisciplinary field, psycholinguistics in the world revealed at the intersection of psychology and linguistics in the 1950s. The basics of Russian Psycholinguistics were founded in the late 19th and 20th century by the Russian psychologists and linguists. Fundamentals of Russian psycholinguistic theories are based on the studies in Russia. These studies led to the development of their own internal dynamics by separating from similar theories in the West. These internal dynamics are based on psychology and linguistics. These are psychological approaches that state that all human activities such as play, communication, learning, labor and art include the characteristics of being conscious, transforming, productive and social and in the field of linguistics these are the ideas that emphasize the language-thought relationship and argue that language cannot be separated from human psychology. Psycholinguistic in Russia was developed under the name of “The Speech Activity” Theory because of these approaches and ideas. The Speech activitiy, covers all kinds of areas, such as reading, language comprehension, speaking, writing. The Speech Activity Theory examines living language during a conversation. The main subject of study of the Russian psycholinguists is the linguistic consciousness. Association dictionaries, by way of laying cultural differences and similarities into account, helps to communicate correctly. Аssociation dictionaries are needed in language learning, in translation studies and every field in which it is important to decompose the differences linguistic consciousness. In this study, the emergence and basic features of psycholinguistic theories in Russia and the studies of important scientists are mentioned. The aim of the study is to show the features, types and benefits of association experiments used by Russian psycholinguists to reveal linguistic consciousness. In addition, the importance of conducting similar studies in Turkish and the contribution of interlingual comparative studies to linguistics, cultural studies and sociology are explained.
Keywords: Psycholinguistics, association, linguistic consciousness, culture, concept, word association norms