Westernization movement, started in the last period of the Ottoman Empire and continued after the establishment of the Tukish Republic, is a normal result of migration from east to west. However, this process has different characteristics than the other processes of acculturation in Turkish history, because of the internal dynamics. The first one is, Anatolian people encountered with western culture by the Turks who embraced Western culture, not by Europians due to the distance of geographical distance. Therefore the Western cultural forms just barely adopted by the public, and perceived as an imposition for a long time. The second one is the socio-cultural environment in Europe encountered the art students which sent to the west within the framework of the modernization program. The youth who are expected to create an original art language to reflect the rising values of modern Turkey by learning western art, confronted with the art of chaos within the social sructure caused by the capitalism and World War I. in Europe, in the first quarter of 20. century.
In 1930's following the discussion at the issues of the relationship between State-Art-Artist and National Art some artists who are the members of " Association of Independent Painters and Sculptors" and "D Group" who paint in understanding of cubist, constructivistic or expresionistic, have been criticized in order to narrate the Turkish Revolution by the modern art forms which were the expression of depression. The events such as the Exibition of Revolution, The State Exibition of Painting and Sculpture, and the countryside excursions of artists, organised these years, have been directed the artists towards the national and local subjects; have tended to searches for unique style by synthesizing Turkish-Islamic Art with the principles of Western Art. Within the Western,zat,on Policies, the building efforts of the Contemporary Turkish Art have continued by the 1950's.
Keywords: Culture, Art, Modernization, National Art, Unique Turkish Painting